Achievement Motivation Theory in Sports Psychology

The film “Tin Cup” is chosen as the film for analysis in this paper. The main character, Roy McAvoy, showed great promise in golf in his youth, but then he gave up his career as an athlete. He begins to earn money by giving individual golf lessons. At this moment, he meets psychoanalyst Dr. Molly Griswold, whose boyfriend (David Simms) is a professional golfer and Roy’s former competitor. Roy and Molly’s relationship becomes more romantic, Molly motivates Roy to return to professional sports, and he qualifies for the US Open. In the finale of the competition, Roy comes to the last hole as the leader, along with David and another famous athlete. David plays carefully, and Roy decides to take a risk by executing a difficult shot. Then, using all his attempts, he finally manages to send the ball into the hole. After a successful performance, Roy is offered a lucrative contract to work as a coach, and Molly stays with him. In this paper, various psychological theories are used to explain the behaviors and actions of the main character of the film.

With regard to the reversal theory, it is possible to say that a person’s inclining to a specific action or propaganda can cause the exact opposite of the intended reaction. Such situations often occur when particular actions are prohibited or contradict social norms. In this case, the person’s actions are a kind of disagreement with the ban and an expression of protest. From the perspective of this theory, there are pairs of positions opposite each other, so only one can be active at a specific time. Thus, a person in a group can strive to be independent or vice versa to join the others. Another example is when a person can focus either on their own experiences or others’ experiences. As a result, a person’s behavior is determined by the choice of one state from two opposite positions at a particular time.

As an example from the film, the following situation can be cited: during the golf tournament, organized by David, Roy works as an assistant, by agreement with David, he does not participate in the competition. However, when at a crucial moment one of the players offers him to hit the ball, Roy agrees, despite the fact that David tells him not to do it and threatens to fire him. Another situation occurs when the main character qualifies for the US Open: his friend tells Roy that he will not score the ball with a three-iron, and all the spectators believe it is impossible. Meanwhile, Roy breaks all the other golf clubs and performs the stroke with the iron one.

Top-level needs, including the desire for success, power, and recognition, play a significant role in the achievement motivation theory. At the same time, success is a personal achievement as a result of active actions; the desire for power can be considered as the ability to work successfully at different levels of management in the organization. The desire for recognition is the potential to be an informal leader. Some athletes are highly motivated and constantly strive for success, while others seem to have no motivation at all and avoid any competition.

Following this theory, people with high achievement needs are convinced that they can reach success, as opposed to those who do not have a necessity for accomplishment. People of the first category tend to show more energy, ability to work, activity, and creativity. Besides, these people’s satisfaction reaches its peak from their awareness of the fact of their luck, but not from recognition by other people or praise. As an example from the film, Molly offers to help Roy prepare for the competition, but he refuses. Roi says that he wants to win and can achieve success, as well as get recognition, but he will do everything himself; no one’s help is needed. After this, Roy begins to train actively on his own.

The key point of the attribution theory is how people explain their achievements and failures, and these explanations can be divided into several categories: the basic types are stability, causality, and control. According to Fishman and Husman (2017), “Research in attribution theory has shown that students’ causal thinking profoundly affects their learning and motivational outcomes” (p. 559). Successful and unsuccessful people can be identified by what tasks they choose to evaluate, what efforts they make during the competition, as well as by their perseverance and results. Successful people usually attribute accomplishments to stable and internal factors, such as ability, while failure is attributed to unstable, controlled factors, such as effort. Unsuccessful people are more result-oriented and attribute achievements to luck or the ease of the task, and failure – to low capabilities. The film’s main character imputes his success to stable and internal factors, such as ability; he is persistent and focused on the result – to win the tournament.

The visuomotor behavioral rehearsal is a so-called mental training, and the purpose of this model is to improve the overall technique, analyze errors, correct them, prepare for the competition, and develop specific skills. To implement this model, first, it is necessary to immerse into a state of muscle relaxation, and then form an image of the situation following the requirements of a particular sport. At the next stage, there is an imaginative study of unique skills and specific elements of sports activity. In the film, when Roy, preparing for a tournament, sits down on the golf course before an essential hit, closes his eyes, and imagines the upcoming strike, trying to feel it.

The stress-inoculation training is a method that teaches self-control techniques that help to cope with stressful situations. This approach is often used to prepare athletes for competition. According to this theory, a coach can advise an athlete to analyze a stressful situation, offer options, show the consequences of a particular choice, and help the sportsman find internal support to overcome difficulties independently. In the film, Romeo, an assistant and a friend of the main character, acts as a consultant. When Roy is in a stressful situation before a vital match and says that he will not succeed, Romeo supports him. He tells Roy to relax, take his mind off other thoughts, focus only on the game, and continue training.

The manifestation of aggressiveness characterizes any kind of sport, and managing aggression is one of the most essential tasks. In sports, it is a rational form of opposition to the competitor, the mobilization of the athlete’s functional capabilities to achieve a specific effect. The self-efficacy theory explains aggression as a behavior acquired as a result of observing the behavior of others. In the film, this is the moment when David, wanting to throw Roy off balance during a bet, tells him that there will be players who score much more, and he is not good enough for this tournament.

According to the cognitive evaluation theory, the impact of various events on motivation is determined not by the objective characteristics of these events but also by their psychological meanings. Thus, the reward can be perceived as control and lead to a decrease in internal motivation and, consequently, to a deterioration in performance. The reinforcement of activity does not necessarily have to be external. It can come from the person themselves since they have their internal motivation, which should be primarily relied on. When preparing for the tournament, Roy’s motivation is not a reward (a prize). He relies on his internal motivation: Roy wants to win the championship and prove that he is not lazy. The main character wants to show everyone what he can do, and he wishes to impress Molly.

In this paper, the behavior of the main character of the film “Tin Cup” is analyzed from the point of view of several theories from the field of sport psychology. Sport is not only a physical load on the body during the training process and during competitions, but also a high mental tension. An athlete often finds themselves in extreme situations, to which it is necessary to adapt and learn to overcome them; otherwise, the competition will be unattainable. Therefore, an athlete’s psychological training is essential, including various methods and techniques aimed at optimizing a person’s psychological skills.


Fishman, E. J., & Husman, J. (2017). Extending attribution theory: Considering students’ perceived control of the attribution processJournal of Educational Psychology, 109(4), 559–573. Web.


PsychologyWriting. (2022, February 3). Achievement Motivation Theory in Sports Psychology. Retrieved from

What Will You Get? is a professional writing service for anyone who needs help with their essay, research paper, or other writing assignments. We provide high-quality content at an affordable price, in a convenient and timely manner.

Premium Quality

Get result-oriented writing and worry no longer about your marks. We adhere to the highest quality standards to ensure you receive flawless assignments. Every essay or paper we complete is thoroughly checked before it reaches the customer--we have a strict quality assurance process in place to produce only the best work.

Expert Writers

Our writers have experience working with papers at all academic levels. You can confidently rely on our skilled professionals' knowledge. We understand that not everyone has the time they need to meet deadlines--to make it easier for our customers, we offer 24/7 support through different channels such as live chat and email so that there's always help when you need it.

On-Time Delivery

Your deadline is our success metric, and we take it extremely seriously. We ensure that you receive your papers before the deadline you choose. You can order an essay and have it delivered to you within 3 hours! If that's not enough for you, we also offer a 24-hour rush option. Don't sweat it! Our writing service can help you brainstorm, find interesting topics, or even do all the work for you. All you have to do is give us a topic and our professional writers will take care of the rest in no time at all.

24/7 Customer Support

There is always a member of our customer service staff available to react to your inquiries. Contact us if you have any questions or concerns. We have access to thousands of experts in multiple fields of study and we have been providing our services for years now. You will never have to worry about quality again — our essays are always original and well-researched. We understand the struggle - we've been there too. That's why we offer our customers 24/7 customer support and fixed prices that are always transparent.

Total Confidentiality

Relax while we help you with the writing of your essays. We have a strict policy regarding the confidentiality of your personal and order-related information. We offer a variety of payment methods including credit cards and PayPal which allows for fast transfer of funds into your account after ordering. You can also make payments at any time using your credit card or when funds are due using PayPal automatic withdrawal from your bank account or credit card balance without having to log into your account.

Authentic Sources

We guarantee that your essay will be thoroughly screened for plagiarism and grammatical issues, as we only use credible, trusted sources. At, everything is done according to your instructions - that means no plagiarism will ever be detected. That also means more money in your pocket as well as a perfect paper to submit as your own work.

Moneyback Guarantee

Still hesitating to place an order? Our 100% Money-Back Guarantee protects you in the unlikely event that you are not happy with the writing.

Preferred essay writer

At any time, hire your favourite essay writer. Simply indicate if you would like your favourite expert to compose your paper, and we will make it happen. We only select the best, most qualified essay writers to join our team. These people have years of experience in essays, research papers, term papers, dissertations, and more. We also prefer to hire essay writers with English as their first language as we want your satisfaction to be guaranteed every time.


Areas of Expertise

Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.

Areas of Expertise

Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.


Trusted Partner of 9950+ Students for Writing

Priority is given to customer pleasure, and we try every day to enhance custom essay writing. We ensure that only the most qualified and knowledgeable writer will complete your project. Your directions will be followed precisely, including all specifics. Editors will proofread each sentence, correct typos, and rectify grammatical and lexical errors.

Professional Essay Writer at Your Service

Quality over quantity is a tenet that Essaywriter adheres to. Our team is the best of the best. In addition, we select writers based on their academic credentials, enabling us to increase the overall field specialization depth! This version enables consumers to buy an essay or any other type of project from our fast paper writing service; just be sure to select the most qualified writer.

Write My Essay Service Helps You Excel!

If you are seeking for a reliable essay writing service that can complete a lengthy report for a reasonable fee, you have come to the perfect place. We recognize that each client has distinct requirements, thus we will tailor each product to meet those specifications! We recognize that it is difficult to balance everything in the agenda. By using our expert writing service, you will no longer need to wonder, "Who can help me with my essay?".


Compared to other essay writing services, our firm cares about its customers and offers premium services that are affordable for any budget. We understand how challenging it can be for students to earn or save money, therefore our costs begin at just $13.99 per page. Because of this, we have a large number of repeat customers that utilize our services frequently. Essaywriter's objective is to provide a cheap online essay service.

Plagiarism Report

You no longer need to be worried about plagiarism. Get a plagiarism report to validate the originality of your work.

Free Features $66FREE

  • Most Qualified Writer $10FREE
  • Plagiarism Scan Report $10FREE
  • Unlimited Revisions $08FREE
  • Paper Formatting $05FREE
  • Cover Page $05FREE
  • Referencing & Bibliography $10FREE
  • Dedicated User Area $08FREE
  • 24/7 Order Tracking $05FREE
  • Periodic Email Alerts $05FREE

Our Services

Join us for the best experience while seeking writing assistance in your college life. A good grade is all you need to boost up your academic excellence and we are all about it.

  • On-time Delivery
  • 24/7 Order Tracking
  • Access to Authentic Sources
Academic Writing

We create perfect papers according to the guidelines.

Professional Editing

We seamlessly edit out errors from your papers.

Thorough Proofreading

We thoroughly read your final draft to identify errors.


Hire Your Personal Essay Writer Today

With our essay service, you'll find an essay writer for any task. Their rating is based on previous customer reviews and successful orders. Before you hire a writer, you can familiarize yourself with their track record in detail!

Check Out Our Sample Work

Dedication. Quality. Commitment. Punctuality


It May Not Be Much, but It’s Honest Work!

Here is what we have achieved so far. These numbers are evidence that we go the extra mile to make your college journey successful.


Happy Clients


Words Written This Week


Ongoing Orders


Customer Satisfaction Rate

Process as Fine as Brewed Coffee

We have the most intuitive and minimalistic process so that you can easily place an order. Just follow a few steps to unlock success.

See How We Helped 9000+ Students Achieve Success


Why students choose Essaywriter Essay writing service?

Essaywriter is a reputable, trustworthy, rapid, and well regarded online essay writing service that offers cheap, high-quality papers. We offer an exceptional service and a multitude of outstanding features, including:

Our authors offer the greatest essay writing service since they hold degrees in a variety of fields. From MBA to law to nursing to business, we cover nearly every degree. Our writers can compose any type of essay, including creative, critical, and scientific articles. We employ the greatest writers in the United States to ensure that you obtain the best essay writing services.

  • Clear elicitation of your requirements.
  • Customized writing as per your needs.

Essaywriter Offers an Outstanding Essay Writing Service with No Risks

We recognize that ordering an essay online may appear intimidating. There is a possibility that the quality or formatting will be inadequate. When working with tight schedules, these dangers cannot be tolerated. Therefore, we evaluate the degrees and qualifications of our authors before hiring them. Our writers are actual persons, and we evaluate samples of their past work to ensure that it corresponds to all American university criteria. We mitigate the hazards, so you can feel secure knowing you're collaborating with a reliable professional essay writing service.

  • Proactive analysis of your writing.
  • 24/7 proffesional customer service.

Hire a Skilled Essay Writer and Get More Done!

Are you entirely overwhelmed by work? Having difficulty juggling everyday, work, and other responsibilities? You've come to the right location, as we will alleviate your concerns. Request "write my paper for me," and we will provide you with access to hundreds of competent and experienced writers. Choose an essay writer, provide them with all of your instructions, and then catch up on work or other responsibilities, secure in the knowing that you will receive a high-quality assignment before the deadline.

  • 100 percent unique content based on the instructions you provide.
  • we offer top-notch essay writing service to boost your grades.
Place an Order Start Chat Now