Foundations Behavior: Psychological Research Methods

There are different research methods like a case study, naturalistic observation, correlation research, survey research and experimental methods used for psychological research. Each method has its own merits and demerits. This paper makes a comparative study of two of the above methods, namely, case study method and survey research method

Case study method

Case study method refers to conducting researches based on case studies. For example, when studying or conducting research on psychological disorders in children, the cases of one or more who have psychological disorders can be studied, and based on that research can be done. The case study methods are rarely used in psychological researches. For studying a special situation, individuals or focus point, case study method is used in psychological research. “The case study is often used by psychologists in order to research into aspects of the human psyche, such as personality, and can be based on an individual, a family, a social group, event, or series of events.” (Keirs,2009, para.1).

Survey method

Survey method is one of the popularly used methods of psychological research. Survey method is defined as “questioning a large group of people about their attitudes, beliefs, etc.” (Methods of research, 2000, Definition, para.1). In survey method, different questions are designed for getting the answers from the sample population of the survey. The samples are selected in such a way that, the selected samples must have almost all the qualities of the population and they should represent the population. For example, when studying about the lifestyle after retirement, a college student who is at the age of 21 cannot be included in the samples.

Use and application of different techniques in case study and survey method

The survey method is preferably used for identifying the intensity of certain variables in the society. Different types of techniques are used for doing a survey as part of the research. Among all these techniques, questionnaire is the most popular one; but it is not a restricted method. In questionnaire method, a printed booklet that includes instructions and questions is sent or given to the potential participants. In questionnaire method, preparation of questionnaire is an important part. For implementing the questionnaire method or interview method questions are necessary and the questions are user-friendly, simple, clean and welcoming. In the beginning session of all these survey methods, the researcher explains to the participants the purpose of the survey. Questions are prepared in a straightforward manner, which encourages the participants to give correct answers. Including response scale will help to understand the response means correctly and it helps to do more specific analysis. (Haslam, & McGarty,2003, p.126).

Another survey technique is interview. In the interview method the researcher conducts interviews. Her interview can be conducted through face-to-face mode or through telephonic conversation mode. In face to face interview, the interviewer prepares notes or records the interviewee’s response to each question. In the telephonic conversation mode, computer helps the interviewer to identify the questions one by one rapidly. Surveys can be conducted through internet also. For conducting surveys through Internet, questions and instructions are prepared and uploaded into the internet.

Case study method is preferably used for identifying the intensity of variables in a particular person. According to the opinion of S. Alexander Haslam and Craig McGarty in their book Research methods and statistics in psychology “it is possible to apply experimental techniques to the investigation of a single case by experimentally manipulating a given variable over time.” (Haslam, & McGarty,2003, p.58).

In the case study method, the researcher can use either small sample case studies or large-scale studies. Case study is done by observing the client’s activities and environmental features. Case studies can be done in two ways. One is experimental case study, in which the researcher makes suitable assumptions. The second one is observational case study, which provides an opportunity for the thorough assessment of the psychological phenomenon. For conducting a case study, first select the case and then make a study and evaluation. Based on this study prepare a report. (The case study as a research method: uses and users of information- LIS 391D.1- spring 1997, 2006).

The reliability, validity and generalizability of two methods

The survey method is more reliable and valid compared to case study method. The very reason is that in the survey method first-hand information is received; therefore this information will have the highest degree of accuracy and reliability. When speaking about generalizability, the case study method of psychological research offers less generalization compared to the survey method of research where a high amount of generalization exists. The reason is that, in the case study method the samples of study are very less or one, but in the survey method, there is large number of information which means there is a generalization.

Comparison and contrast of two research methods

Case study is a good method of creating hypothesis. It provides deep information related to person. Survey method is also good for developing hypotheses but it provides lot of data from many people. In case of study, unusual or impractical cases may be considered for the research. In survey methods, the possibility for this kind of consideration is very less.

In case of study, probability of missing vital information is very high and the case study report interpretation is very difficult, but in survey chance for missing information is very less and one can interpret the survey result very easily. In case of study, the person being interviewed may have selective or incorrect memory. This problem will not arise in the survey method, because it focuses on more than one person. Case study considers one person as a representative of the population, but in survey method large number of people are involved. (Table 1.3: Research methods in psychology: Their advantages and disadvantages, n.d.).

In some situations surveys involve manipulations by the researcher, for example, survey which uses Split-ballot technique have manipulations. That is, in a psychological survey, there may have several independent variables, the researcher considers them as causal. In this aspect in the book Research methods and statistics in psychology, authors S. Alexander Haslam and Craig McGarty say “under certain conditions, survey methods can allow researchers to falsify causal hypotheses.” (Haslam, & McGarty,2003, p.106).

In some psychological researches survey is the best method. The reason is that the researcher cannot use independent variables as per the personal interest. In experimental case study method the chance for manipulation is very less. In an observational case study the researcher cannot make a conclusion about the reason and its effect related to the case study. In survey methods like questionnaires and internet-based surveys, the number of participants is very large. It helps to collect information from more than one person and to create an output based on information from different sources. In case of study, it focuses only on one person, so it is difficult to develop a conclusion that can be considered general for all. That is, case study gives specific output from particular to general while survey method generates an output from general to particular.


From the above discussion it is clear that each method has its advantages and disadvantages. The use of a particular method depends on the nature of the research and some other factors like time, population…etc. Whatever method is used for the research, the important matter is the reliability and validity of the result.


The different methods of psychological research have their own advantages and disadvantages. The methods used for the research depend on the purpose and the population of the study. In this paper, two methods, namely, case study method and survey research method are compared. Different techniques are used in different methods of research. Also the selection of research method depends on the required reliability and accuracy of the research. In the case study method the research is conducted in the form of particular to general, but in survey method it is general to particular.


  1. Haslam, S A., & McGarty, Craig. (2003). Research methods and statistics in psychology. SAGE. 2nd edition. 126. Web.
  2. Keirs, E. (2009). Understanding the case study in psychology. Helium.
  3. Methods of research: Survey method: Definition. (2000). CIBER lab: for Psychological Research.
  4. The case study as a research method: uses and users of information- LIS 391D.1- spring 1997. (2006).
  5. Table 1.3: Research methods in psychology: Their advantages and disadvantages. (n.d.). Web.

What Will You Get? is a professional writing service for anyone who needs help with their essay, research paper, or other writing assignments. We provide high-quality content at an affordable price, in a convenient and timely manner.

Premium Quality

Get result-oriented writing and worry no longer about your marks. We adhere to the highest quality standards to ensure you receive flawless assignments. Every essay or paper we complete is thoroughly checked before it reaches the customer--we have a strict quality assurance process in place to produce only the best work.

Expert Writers

Our writers have experience working with papers at all academic levels. You can confidently rely on our skilled professionals' knowledge. We understand that not everyone has the time they need to meet deadlines--to make it easier for our customers, we offer 24/7 support through different channels such as live chat and email so that there's always help when you need it.

On-Time Delivery

Your deadline is our success metric, and we take it extremely seriously. We ensure that you receive your papers before the deadline you choose. You can order an essay and have it delivered to you within 3 hours! If that's not enough for you, we also offer a 24-hour rush option. Don't sweat it! Our writing service can help you brainstorm, find interesting topics, or even do all the work for you. All you have to do is give us a topic and our professional writers will take care of the rest in no time at all.

24/7 Customer Support

There is always a member of our customer service staff available to react to your inquiries. Contact us if you have any questions or concerns. We have access to thousands of experts in multiple fields of study and we have been providing our services for years now. You will never have to worry about quality again — our essays are always original and well-researched. We understand the struggle - we've been there too. That's why we offer our customers 24/7 customer support and fixed prices that are always transparent.

Total Confidentiality

Relax while we help you with the writing of your essays. We have a strict policy regarding the confidentiality of your personal and order-related information. We offer a variety of payment methods including credit cards and PayPal which allows for fast transfer of funds into your account after ordering. You can also make payments at any time using your credit card or when funds are due using PayPal automatic withdrawal from your bank account or credit card balance without having to log into your account.

Authentic Sources

We guarantee that your essay will be thoroughly screened for plagiarism and grammatical issues, as we only use credible, trusted sources. At, everything is done according to your instructions - that means no plagiarism will ever be detected. That also means more money in your pocket as well as a perfect paper to submit as your own work.

Moneyback Guarantee

Still hesitating to place an order? Our 100% Money-Back Guarantee protects you in the unlikely event that you are not happy with the writing.

Preferred essay writer

At any time, hire your favourite essay writer. Simply indicate if you would like your favourite expert to compose your paper, and we will make it happen. We only select the best, most qualified essay writers to join our team. These people have years of experience in essays, research papers, term papers, dissertations, and more. We also prefer to hire essay writers with English as their first language as we want your satisfaction to be guaranteed every time.


Areas of Expertise

Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.

Areas of Expertise

Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.


Trusted Partner of 9950+ Students for Writing

Priority is given to customer pleasure, and we try every day to enhance custom essay writing. We ensure that only the most qualified and knowledgeable writer will complete your project. Your directions will be followed precisely, including all specifics. Editors will proofread each sentence, correct typos, and rectify grammatical and lexical errors.

Professional Essay Writer at Your Service

Quality over quantity is a tenet that Essaywriter adheres to. Our team is the best of the best. In addition, we select writers based on their academic credentials, enabling us to increase the overall field specialization depth! This version enables consumers to buy an essay or any other type of project from our fast paper writing service; just be sure to select the most qualified writer.

Write My Essay Service Helps You Excel!

If you are seeking for a reliable essay writing service that can complete a lengthy report for a reasonable fee, you have come to the perfect place. We recognize that each client has distinct requirements, thus we will tailor each product to meet those specifications! We recognize that it is difficult to balance everything in the agenda. By using our expert writing service, you will no longer need to wonder, "Who can help me with my essay?".


Compared to other essay writing services, our firm cares about its customers and offers premium services that are affordable for any budget. We understand how challenging it can be for students to earn or save money, therefore our costs begin at just $13.99 per page. Because of this, we have a large number of repeat customers that utilize our services frequently. Essaywriter's objective is to provide a cheap online essay service.

Plagiarism Report

You no longer need to be worried about plagiarism. Get a plagiarism report to validate the originality of your work.

Free Features $66FREE

  • Most Qualified Writer $10FREE
  • Plagiarism Scan Report $10FREE
  • Unlimited Revisions $08FREE
  • Paper Formatting $05FREE
  • Cover Page $05FREE
  • Referencing & Bibliography $10FREE
  • Dedicated User Area $08FREE
  • 24/7 Order Tracking $05FREE
  • Periodic Email Alerts $05FREE

Our Services

Join us for the best experience while seeking writing assistance in your college life. A good grade is all you need to boost up your academic excellence and we are all about it.

  • On-time Delivery
  • 24/7 Order Tracking
  • Access to Authentic Sources
Academic Writing

We create perfect papers according to the guidelines.

Professional Editing

We seamlessly edit out errors from your papers.

Thorough Proofreading

We thoroughly read your final draft to identify errors.


Hire Your Personal Essay Writer Today

With our essay service, you'll find an essay writer for any task. Their rating is based on previous customer reviews and successful orders. Before you hire a writer, you can familiarize yourself with their track record in detail!

Check Out Our Sample Work

Dedication. Quality. Commitment. Punctuality


It May Not Be Much, but It’s Honest Work!

Here is what we have achieved so far. These numbers are evidence that we go the extra mile to make your college journey successful.


Happy Clients


Words Written This Week


Ongoing Orders


Customer Satisfaction Rate

Process as Fine as Brewed Coffee

We have the most intuitive and minimalistic process so that you can easily place an order. Just follow a few steps to unlock success.

See How We Helped 9000+ Students Achieve Success


Why students choose Essaywriter Essay writing service?

Essaywriter is a reputable, trustworthy, rapid, and well regarded online essay writing service that offers cheap, high-quality papers. We offer an exceptional service and a multitude of outstanding features, including:

Our authors offer the greatest essay writing service since they hold degrees in a variety of fields. From MBA to law to nursing to business, we cover nearly every degree. Our writers can compose any type of essay, including creative, critical, and scientific articles. We employ the greatest writers in the United States to ensure that you obtain the best essay writing services.

  • Clear elicitation of your requirements.
  • Customized writing as per your needs.

Essaywriter Offers an Outstanding Essay Writing Service with No Risks

We recognize that ordering an essay online may appear intimidating. There is a possibility that the quality or formatting will be inadequate. When working with tight schedules, these dangers cannot be tolerated. Therefore, we evaluate the degrees and qualifications of our authors before hiring them. Our writers are actual persons, and we evaluate samples of their past work to ensure that it corresponds to all American university criteria. We mitigate the hazards, so you can feel secure knowing you're collaborating with a reliable professional essay writing service.

  • Proactive analysis of your writing.
  • 24/7 proffesional customer service.

Hire a Skilled Essay Writer and Get More Done!

Are you entirely overwhelmed by work? Having difficulty juggling everyday, work, and other responsibilities? You've come to the right location, as we will alleviate your concerns. Request "write my paper for me," and we will provide you with access to hundreds of competent and experienced writers. Choose an essay writer, provide them with all of your instructions, and then catch up on work or other responsibilities, secure in the knowing that you will receive a high-quality assignment before the deadline.

  • 100 percent unique content based on the instructions you provide.
  • we offer top-notch essay writing service to boost your grades.
Place an Order Start Chat Now